In today’s world, we see a growing trend of people who are extremely conscious about their body image. The pressure to look perfect, along with the influence of social media and advertising, has increased the number of individuals preoccupied with their physical appearance. How to not be self-conscious about your body? This article will explore …
Understanding Speech and Language Disorders
Speech disorders can be a form of communication disability that can range from mild to severe. Some of the most common speech disorders are stuttering, apraxia of speech, and dysarthria. These issues can affect an individual’s ability to communicate effectively with others. In this article, we’ll explore the types, symptoms, and causes of speech disorders, …
Will My Lisp Go Away After Braces? Orthodontic Treatment for Speech Disorders
If you or your child has a lisp, you may be wondering if braces can help. A lisp is a speech disorder that causes people to incorrectly say “s” and “z” sounds. Many people with a lisp also have problems with other speech sounds. Orthodontic treatment can often help correct these problems. In this blog …
How to Understand and Help a Child With Receptive, Expressive Language Disorder
If your child has been diagnosed with receptive, expressive language disorder, you may be feeling overwhelmed and unsure of what to do next. This is a common reaction, but you can help your child overcome this obstacle with the right information and support. In this blog post, we will provide an overview of receptive, expressive …
How to Recognize and Manage Expressive Language Disorder in Adults
Expressive language disorder is a condition that affects the ability to express oneself clearly. It can make it difficult to communicate with others, both verbally and non-verbally. Many adults with this disorder go undiagnosed, as they often learn to compensate for their difficulties. However, there are ways to recognize and manage expressive language disorder in …
Hard Words to Say with a Lisp: How to Work Around Your Speech Disability
Saying hard words is never easy, but it can be especially difficult when you have a speech disability. A lisp is a common speech disability that can make it difficult to pronounce certain sounds. If you have a lisp, don’t worry! There are plenty of ways to work around your speech disability and still communicate …
Take the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Test: Do You Have BDD?
Do you have trouble looking in the mirror? Do you feel like you are not good enough, no matter what you do? If so, you may be suffering from body dysmorphic disorder. This condition affects many people and can lead to a great deal of distress. This blog post will discuss body dysmorphia in detail …
Why Am I So Self Conscious? What Does it Mean to Be Self-Conscious?
Some people are having a hard time being confident about themselves. So if you are asking yourself like, why am I so self-conscious? Perhaps, you feel the same way. So What does it mean to be self-conscious? And why is it such an issue for some people but not others? Let’s find out in this article, including some steps to beat this self-conscious feeling.
Why Do I Have a Lisp? Techniques and Treatments To Address Lisping
You may probably have lisps if you have difficulty speaking, especially the word with s and z sounds. It is possible that from time to time, you may ask yourself like ‘why do I have a lisp?’. As a matter of fact, there are a few reasons why you may have ended up with a Lisp. One reason may be due to your personal language history. Or then again, it may happen because of a sudden accident. In any case, this article will discuss the different types of lisps, the treatment, some techniques to correct lisping, how a speech therapist can help this speech disorder, and more.
Dental Care For Kids: How To Maintain Oral Health At Such A Young Age?
Dental care for kids is just as essential as the adults. Generally speaking, it is best to start caring for their dental health as early as possible. This way, we can prevent further oral issues in the future. As for children with learning disabilities, it is also necessary to find a dental provider for them. You can also click on this link to visit their website. Dental providers for individuals with learning disabilities must have sufficient experience to address their dental problems. Each of us, no matter what condition we are in, requires proper dental care. In this case, dental care for kids is better to start while they are still young.
Tongue Tied Surgery: 4 Best Surgical Procedure Options
Why do you need tongue tied surgery? If a baby has a tongue tie ankyloglossia, they can experience many complications later in life. Therefore, treatment is essential for the proper development of the baby, specifically their oral health condition. In fact, surgery might help with this oral issue.
Jaw Alignment Without Surgery: What Are The Treatment Options?
Getting surgery can be problematic to others since the procedure itself always have risks. If you are looking for jaw alignment without surgery, then you may try to get orthodontic treatment. This procedure is popular with children, but adults can also have the treatment. As orthodontics become more advance, their appliances are also becoming more aesthetically pleasing. Learn more about orthodontics.
Speech Therapy Exercise: Why Do You Need This Activity?
If you have speech problems or simply want to take care of your voice, you can participate in a speech therapy exercise. This activity can help improve your language skills and encourage new brain areas to take on the function of speech and communication. Aside from exercising your voice, getting a massage treatment will also help relax your muscles, influencing the way you speak. Click here to learn more.
Is ADD A Learning Disability? Symptoms To Watch Out For
ADD, or attention deficit disorder is the medical term for patients with symptoms like being distracted, need for attention, and weak memory associated with a neurological condition. Is ADD a learning disability? The answer is no, ADD is not a specific learning disability. Learning disability is a totally different thing from ADD. If you need help to understand more, find a professional online.
Self Conscious About Body Image? Effective Ways To Improve Perception
Everyone has experienced a moment where they feel a bit concerned about the way they look. Sometimes, feeling body-conscious is expected because of our innate desire to appear our best. However, being self conscious about body image can also interfere with our daily lives. When weight issues start to take their toll on our perception, they may develop into severe mental health conditions that affect our lives.
What Causes Stuttering? (Symptoms and Treatments)
It is easy to identify a person who stutters. However, there is no definite explanation of what causes stuttering. There are some triggering factors, yet its underlying cause is not enough. Most people who have a beautiful figure can carry their confidence well to the event that they do not stutter when talking in public. If you believe that physical appearance is the reason you stutter, you can visit a cosmetic clinic and get a consultation.
What are The Eight Benefits of Early Orthodontic Treatment?
How can an early orthodontic treatment help your child develop or maintain healthy, well-aligned teeth? The good thing about going to dentists is that they can help foresee future dental problems. So how about more getting an early dental intervention? Since children’s teeth are still developing, getting early dental care can guarantee their dental health and overall health. If you want to know more, visit www.beyondinfinitydental.com.au/dental-treatments/orthodontics to read about modern options.
Difficulty In Reading: Signifcant Impacts And Treatment Options
Difficulty in reading may have underlying causes that you can address with the help of medical professionals. Reading is crucial for a child’s academic, economic, and social success. However, some children experience reading difficulties. Besides that, children might have even completed schooling without achieving more than basic literacy. A variety of reasons can cause why children find it difficult to read. For example, maybe there is a vision problem or could be another medical condition.
Scar Removal Surgery: Cost, Safety, Effectiveness, And Procedures
Having a huge and visible scar in any part of your body can somehow affect your confidence. Most especially if the scar is located in areas where it’s very much noticeable and hard to conceal. Fortunately, one of the new treatments being offered by plastic surgery clinics includes scar revision. The scar removal surgery cost varies from the services that the client will avail. Read more about payments for associated services like doctors, facilities, anesthetics, medication, medical tests, and garments fees.
Lisping: Know the Types, Causes, and How to Cure a Lisp
How do we correctly define lisping? Is it a full-on speech disorder? What are the causes of lisping? How should one address this situation? Let us find out more about this speech condition, from knowing the causes, the triggers, and how to cure a lisp.
Fixing Overbite: Common Treatment Options Available For You
What are the treatment options for fixing overbite? Is it essential to correct an overbite? How much would it cost? These are only a few questions you would tend to ask in case that you have an overbite. If you want to treat your overbite with braces, you only have to make an appointment with your dental care provider.
Kid Stuttering: Symptoms, and What Treatments To Apply
Kid stuttering is a kind of speech problem. They also refer to stuttering as stammering or childhood-onset fluency disorder. It is a kind of dysfluency wherein the flow of speech is interrupted. For instance, crooked teeth can also affect speech. It can cause difficulty to speak the words properly. Nowadays, you don’t have to worry about fixing children’s crooked teeth. Dental care providers can work out your crooked teeth.
What Are The Corrective Treatments For Myopia In Kids?
Sadly, because of early exposure to gadgets and modern technology, the number of kids suffering from eye diseases is rapidly growing every year. One of the most common eye problems nowadays is myopia in kids. Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is an eye health issue that makes far objects blurry and hard to distinguish. If your child is experiencing its symptoms get help from an eye doctor immediately.
What Is Underbite Surgery?
Underbite surgery is a form of procedure done to treat people with an underbite dental condition. It is a medical treatment to align teeth correctly and is performed by an oral surgeon. If you are have this condition and underbite surgery is needed, visit specialists experienced in orthodontics now.
Can People Develop Articulation Problems Because Of Crooked Teeth?
Can articulation disorders occur in people with tooth crowding? How does one get treatment for these speech problems? This article will shed some light as to some articulation and speech problems people may develop if they have misaligned teeth. After reading this article, if you have crooked teeth, consider visiting your orthodontist for treatments like orthodontic appliances.
How Do You Fix Overcrowded Teeth? (For Kids With Special Needs)
Dentists say that overcrowded teeth might affect speech as children grow. It can be complicated to fix crowded teeth for kids with special needs. Particularly, dental problems can disrupt learning abilities at an early age. If you are a parent or know someone with crowding teeth or malocclusion, you may want to ask a dental specialist like an orthodontist for treatment.
Damon Braces (Costs and Other Important Information)
What are damon braces? Costs and other details about these special types of braces will be discussed in this article. How can these braces help patients attain a better smile?
What is: Learning Disabilities (What They Are And What Parents Can Do)
“What is learning disabilities?”, many people search for this query on the internet. There are a number of learning disabilities that affect people all over the world. This article will talk about the top most common learning disabilities, how they affect people who have them, and what treatment options are available.
Crooked Teeth And Malocclusion: Do I Have An Overbite?
Do I have an overbite or some other type of tooth malocclusion? Many patients are confused about the kind of tooth malocclusion they have. This article will talk about crooked teeth and how orthodontics can help. If the article sparks interest, you can click this link for details about malocclusion, read more here.
What Can You Expect from a 24 Hour Urgent Care Clinic?
According to statistics in America, it revealed that only around 29% of health care providers had made appointments for the treatment of their patients after clinic hours. This survey and longer wait times in emergency rooms have encouraged the replication of a 24 hour urgent care clinic. The expansion of this kind of clinic meets the public’s growing desire for better and more convenient access to health care.
Medicare and dental implants: Can you get coverage?
It is a known fact that cosmetic procedures are not usually covered by dental insurance. However, if the procedure is deemed medically necessary by the patient, there is a chance that insurance may cover it. This article will cover the topic of Medicare and dental implants. After reading the article, if you need dental implants, you can use this link to consult a specialist.
Dental Facts for Kids with Disabilities
A lot of parents of kids with disabilities overlook the importance of proper dental care. What they don’t know is that children with developmental problems are those who are more at risk of having oral health issues. Conditions that involve a child’s emotions, behavior and physical status are connected to these issues. Here are dental facts for kids with disabilities that you should be aware of.
Invisalign for Kids – Knowing the Basics
It is a fact that Invisalign provides numerous benefits to the wearers and it’s been proven to be more advantageous than those typical metallic braces. Nevertheless, the outcome will still depend on the patient’s case, and this also applies if a child is wearing it. If you wish to know more, read an article about braces at LV Dental’s site.
Disability for cancer patients: How and who can apply?
Let us face the truth that of all the diseases that you can get in this lifetime, cancer is probably one of the most frightening (if not the most) disease you can ever have. Not only because it can be very aggressive and spread to other parts of your body, it can also strike you without you knowing it. Yes, some cancers are asymptomatic until they are already in their late stages, so chances that you are aware of what you did to your body that caused cancer to develop are pretty slim. You may or may not have cosmetic surgery before or after developing cancer, and some even suggest that you can get cancer from implants and whatnot. You can check out this link to learn more. It can also disrupt your everyday lifestyle and activities, including your work. With this in mind, let us discuss different facts about disability for cancer patients and how they apply for this social security benefit.
Providing Dental Care For Disabled Veterans
n the same way, they are prone to serious mouth concerns like tooth decay and gingivitis. Dental care does not stop once you’ve reached the adult stage. You may visit this page to know more about different dental health care procedures and services for adults. People who are living with a disabled veteran knows the struggle of financing their loved one. Knowing that there are ways to avail the care will help them ease the task.
Dental Services for Everyone: Dentistry for Special Needs
The world is becoming more open and more understanding of people who have special needs. The dental world is no different. This is where dentistry for special needs would come in. If you are interested, you can learn more by visiting this page.
Are braces on the back of teeth a good idea?
Braces on the back of teeth, is that even possible? If you googled that, then you have reached the right page. This article will talk about the braces that you can have which are located at the back of the teeth. If you are interested in these braces or if you would want to switch to clear braces, read on to find out more information.
How can we fix crooked teeth?
Fixing crooked and misaligned teeth may not be a priority for a lot of people. As long as they do not pose any discomfort and still perform their duties in digesting food, it doesn’t matter to them whether they have overcrowded teeth or bite problems. They would rather spend the amount of money it would have caused for them to correct their teeth alignment to something more important, like food, clothes, education, or shelter. But for those who are particular with how they look and how their teeth affect their overall facial profile and smile, fixing it is essential to improve their beauty. So, how can we effectively fix crooked teeth and what dental tools does a dentist need to correct them?
What causes lisps in adults?
Lisps are by far one of the most common speech disorders. A hallmark sign of a lisp is the fact that words are not being pronounced clearly and sound incorrect. It can be difficult to live with this condition. You might have been looking for treatment and ask “can orthodontics correct speech problems?” Doubly so for adults who suddenly find themselves having speech problems and unable to speak as clearly as they once were. You may be curious in regards to what causes a lisp in adults and it is easy to understand why.
Are speech disorders a reason to consider braces?
Speech problems are not at all fun to deal with, but they are very common. Having the ability to speak and articulate words clearly are very important and are based on several factors. They can also be affected by the placement of one’s teeth as well. There is a very big overlap in regards to speech disorders and orthodontics. You may be wondering what issues can modern orthodontics correct and if this is a good enough reason to get braces.
How common is astigmatism in children
Have you experienced blurring of vision when you were a child? Or is your child complaining of headache due to a distorted vision? You or your child may be suffering from astigmatism. Let us know more about this condition and discover the answer to the question: How common is astigmatism in children?
The connection between ADHD and tics
If your child or a member of your community is diagnosed with ADHD, you may have seen them be extremely hyperactive and would be noticeably weak at focusing attention on things. Lately, there are also studies that described a relationship between ADHD and tics. Does a child with ADHD and teeth grinding have to do with tics? How are these two connected?
Can we use Orthodontic Braces as Lisp Treatment?
While on the aesthetic side of things, having straight, white teeth can be so attractive compared to overcrowded and damaged ones. But can orthodontic braces be used for other things, like lisp treatment? You can click to read more about orthodontic braces.
Famous People With Learning Disabilities
You have probably heard of Michael Phelps, the American swimmer who is the most decorated Olympian of all time with an astounding 23 gold medals. You also probably know Keira Knightley, the English actress who has won two Academy Awards. How about Gavin Newsom, the Governor of the state of California and the popular singer Jewel and the legendary director Steven Spielberg? What do all of these people have in common? They are all famous people with learning disabilities. You can click here to learn more information.
Do dental braces cause lisp?
Orthodontic braces offer a teeth-straightening solution for patients with overcrowded teeth. But like other dental procedures, there are some unwanted effects that patients complain about. These may include discomfort, temporary pain, loss of appetite, and slurred speech or lisp. Can braces cause lisp? More at www.ssmirandadental.com.au/orthodontic-braces. Here, let us find out how patient braces lisp and how this procedure will correct one’s speech.
Ways of Making Learning Disabilities Tutoring Easy
Tending to a student with learning disabilities can seem like a challenging task to take but it doesn’t have to be. With the right role models, look on life, and a great support system giving those with learning disabilities tutoring can be as they say “easy peasy”.
Dentist for Special Needs Child
Special children are those that have some developmental malfunctions, congenital disorders, cognitive issues, systemic disorder or behavioral disease. Because of their special condition or needs, they’re more vulnerable to oral health problems.
Children with dyslexia need specialized assistance in reading and academics. These often come in the form of reading support programs, which may be available in schools, community centers, and via private therapy.
Language Learning Disability
Dyslexia. You have heard the term. You may even have a basic definition of the word stored in your brain when you hear or read the word.
Language Processing Disorder in Adults
I’m sure there have been times that everyone had trouble expressing themselves fully. It’s there but you can’t put it into words. That is simply a small hiccup in processing language. Almost everyone needs to talk to have fluid communication with people. Though language processing disorder can negatively impact it. Language processing disorder is trouble …
Dental treatment to fix lisp teeth process
Can dental treatment fix lisp teeth? This is the frequently asked question especially for those suffering from lisp problem. For more information about dental lisp, visit Good Choice Dental’s website.
Jobs for People with Learning Disability
People with a learning disability may find it difficult to read, write or process the information they hear. This, however, should not inhibit people with any of these learning disabilities to be contributors to the job market. There are many things they can do where these disabilities will have little to no effect at all on their job performance.
What Exactly Is Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit?
Sight is one of the many things that, humans, usually take for granted. We get most of the information from outside with our eyes. Therefore, it is of no question that our eyes are very important. It would be a true horror for us to have some sort of problem with it. People with visual perceptual/visual motor deficits have issues comprehending their visual information. Most often, kids or people with learning disabilities have this condition sometimes people with brain damage have this condition. These kinds of issues can be subtle or worse. When it is subtle, a person can spend a lifetime before knowing they have such a condition which is precisely why people should be informed to check whether they or the people they know have this condition. By being informed of this we can help these people to make their lives easier and more comfortable. The visual perceptual/visual motor deficit has a lot of signs and symptoms to look for which can make it easier to determine the condition. Simply view this website to know what they are.
How to get rid of a lisp
Among speech and language difficulties, lisping is one of the most prevalent and commonly observed. It results from a displacement of the tongue which elicits persistently mispronounced sounds.
Dysgraphia is a learning disability characterized by illegible handwriting caused by dysfunction of the nervous system. It can exist in two forms as the person can be mentally retarded or psycho-socially deprived.
Language Processing Disorder
Imagine yourself in a country where everyone only speaks a foreign language you’ve never even heard of before. That’s exactly how people struggling from Language Processing Disorder (LPD), feel.
Learning Disability Test for Adults
Learning disabilities don’t happen to kids only, they are actually the reason quite a number of adults are getting frustrated at workplaces and schools.
Dental child care for special needs
Special need cases can vary in children to rage from physical, emotional, behavioral and developmental among other conditions. A famous dentist in Gosford, NSW explains that children with special needs have limited ability to give 100% dental care needs for themselves making it necessary to be supported.
Asthma Specialist Doctors To Choose From
If you have asthma, it is necessary to choose an asthma specialist, a doctor who is knowledgeable of the various respiratory problems and the appropriate treatment methods available they also stated that breathing problems affect speech. There are various categories of asthma specialists who you need to consider when looking for one.
How to Make Your Voice Less Nasal
You might have heard people sounding as if they are speaking through their nose that sounds like twangy voice, this is called Nasal voice. It arises due to various reasons ranging from a common cold to some structural defects in the mouth or nose.
Surgery to Open Nasal Passages
Surgery to open nasal passages is very common to many patients due to a variety of nasal problems such as breathing problems, shape improvement of the nose, nasal splint, cosmetic purposes, injury deformity correction, supporting an aging nose among others. Due to the chronic stuffy nose, surgery to open nasal passages is done to ease nasal obstruction which may also as a result of structural problems. This nasal obstruction can be caused by swelling of the nasal surface caused by sinus inflammation, allergies among other nasal diseases.
An Overview of Various Dyspraxia Treatment
Dyspraxia is the neurological disorder which impacts the ability of a person to plan and also process the motor tasks. The brain doesn’t process the information in the way which allows for the full transmission of the neural messages. A person with dyspraxia normally have language problems, and sometimes high difficulty with perception and thought. Dyspraxia, however, doesn’t affect the intelligence of a person, although it may cause the learning problems in many children.
Understanding the Body Conscious meaning
Body conscious meaning can simply be defined as shifting your work goals from weight loss to aim at fitness. It is coming to terms with the reality that there is no one body standard. With that in mind, people will exercise, hit the gym and eat well for the purpose of good health outcomes. But nowadays people prefer to have a surgery than do exercise, if you want to learn more about surgical procedure that removes loose and excess abdominal skin and some fat tissue and tightens the abdominal muscles to flatten out the tummy book online and contact Tummy Tuck Melbourne to know more!
Can you get Disability for Breast Cancer?
Can you get Disability for Breast Cancer? Over the recent past, there have been increased cases of breast cancer diagnosis, causing an alarm to the health sector. Breast cancer, which is a form of cancer that develops in the breast cells, is the second most common type of cancer diagnosed in women in the world after skin cancer, for more details regarding this matter you can read articles and blogs related to this just click the link. If you or your close friend or relative is diagnosed with breast cancer, there are a variety of resources that can help you manage the situation.
The Dental wax for Braces.
Dental wax for braces can give you an excellent look with your braces as they cover protruding wires and brackets making the teeth to have a smooth appearance. The harmless gum is safe and can be used for both the children and adults who are using braces. But what to do if your braces break? Read more at https://emergencydentistmelbournedr.com.au/24-hour-emergency-dentist/
Autism vs Down Syndrome: How can we differentiate
Autism and downs syndrome are both developmental conditions that occur in both children and adults. They may present in one individual although the causes, symptoms and treatments for both are entirely different. Autism This is a condition that affects the behaviour of a child characterized by impaired communication, poor social interactions, impaired body movement and …
The Impact of Lisping on Dental Care.
There is a lot to consider around dental care hence you must focus on the exact area and benefits that are needed most. When operation with braces behind your teeth comes, there can be a clear evidence and many direct and indirect benefits also this may cause lisping.
The General Anesthesia Side Effects
General anaesthesia side effects is basically a medically induced coma, but not sleep, in which the drugs are administered intravenously ( by use of IV) one is mumbling after anesthesia, making the patient unconscious and unresponsive. Sometimes local anaesthesia is inhaled. Examples of general anaesthesia drugs include: ketamin, propofol, benzodiazepines, midazolam, etomidate, barbiturates, methohexital and …
Signs Of Dyslexia In 5 Year Old
If you’re concerned your 5 year old child may have dyslexia, this article can answer many of your basic questions. It can also lead you to more in-depth information about this common learning disability. Here are some signs of dyslexia in 5 year old kids that you need to watch out for. Directional confusion Directional …
Septoplasty recovery time
Septum is the one which divides our nasal cavity into two. It is made up of bone and cartilage, and it is often straight and well aligned. But some of us will have our nasal septum deviated for two reasons, it may be a birth defect in some people and it is a result of …
Effects of dysgraphia in adults
Adult learning is expected to be a smooth process however that is not always the case. Dysgraphia in adults has been reported to affect their learning process especially when it comes to writing. This makes it difficult for them to coordinate and express themselves through writing effectively as expected. It’s actually a little difficult to …
Impact of Speech Sound Disorder
When children are learning to talk, they may say some of the sounds in the wrong way which can be corrected and perfected over time. The cases in adults can be different when they experience the disorder as the condition can be permanent hence very difficult to correct. Some of the problems with sounds can be carried from childhood to adulthood which others may be experienced due to accidents that happen in adulthood or even a missing front teeth may affect speech
Dyscalculia or numlexia is a disability that prevents a child from learning or understanding arithmetic. About 3 – 6% of the population is estimated to suffer from the disability or to manifest dyscalculia symptoms. Dyscalculia symptoms may fall into the general category of difficulty dealing with numbers or numerical concepts. Click here to know some …
Dental Help for Adults with Learning Disabilities
No matter what age we are, whether we are young or old, we all should be able to access good dental care. Gosford dentists from DDII Clinic provide dental services for all ages including adults with learning disabilities, even though most of us have the impression that they might not have such access as the …
Can crooked teeth cause lisp speech?
Your teeth and tongue control the way you pronounce certain words or letters , it thus stands to reason that even minor defects in the teeth arrangement and shape could cause speech disorders. Crooked teeth is an example of a dental misalignment that could cause lisping in adulthood.
How to Improve Visual Motor Integration: Tips and Tricks
Did you know that visual-motor integration is an essential skill for children to develop? This skill helps children write, draw, and even tie their shoes. If your child seems to be struggling with visual-motor integration, don’t worry! There are several things you can do to help improve this skill. In this blog post, we will …
Can Braces Fix a Lisp? The Truth About Orthodontics
Most people think of braces as a way to straighten teeth. While this is undoubtedly one of the main functions of braces, they can also be used to correct a lisp. A lisp can be caused by several factors, including tongue placement and muscle tension. This blog post will discuss how braces can help restore …
Jaw Alignment Surgery: What to Expect
If you are considering corrective jaw surgery, you probably have many questions. What will the surgery entail? What is the recovery process like? How much does it cost? This blog post will answer some of the most common questions about jaw alignment surgery. We will also provide a detailed overview of what to expect before, …